Saturday, December 13, 2014

Addison Prairie Falcon

The second Prairie Falcon of this year was discovered along Otter Creek Road in Addison on Tuesday, December 9 by Rodney Olsen.  Another, quite possibly the same bird but as yet not confirmed, was spotted  nearly a year ago (January 1) in the vicinity of Gage Road. The two locations being separated a flight distance of  about four miles.  

Hearing of the sighting Don Clark and I struck out to find it Thursday morning following a night of heavy snowfall making driving conditions a bit sketchy.  Arriving shortly after 8 a.m. at the location on Otter Creek Road, where the falcon was seen by local birders the day before and making several drives up and down the road checking out every raptor and raptor-like object in sight, it was not to be found.  But at 11:30 a.m. a suspicious bird was spotted perched in a tree farther to the east adjacent to VT Route 17.  Viewing it through our scopes it clearly had all the markings of a Prairie Falcon.  We were able to drive closer for a better view, and Don was able snap off several photos (one posted below) before it took to the air flying in the direction of Otter Creek Road. As there were several other birders in the area looking for it without much success, we caught up with them to pass along the good news.  From that point on the falcon was seen several times at various locations along the length of Otter Creek Road.  This bird can cover a lot of ground in a short period of time.

Photo by Don Clark.

Monday, May 26, 2014

Northern Wheatear

With spring bird migrations in full swing, once again we are enjoying the return of the great diversity of neotropical species that either nest here in northern New England or are passing through on their way to more northern nesting grounds. So what a special surprise when a handsome adult male Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenantha) appeared on the grounds of the Veterans Administration Hospital in White River Junction, Vermont this past Friday (June 23).  Discovered by George Clarke and Scott Johnson earlier in the day, by late afternoon the news was out and birders began arriving to see this rarity.  It was still present the next day and was relatively easy to locate in the visitor's parking lot.  As no sightings were posted for Sunday, it appears that the bird has moved on.

Northern Wheatear, a bird measuring about 5.5 to 6 inches in length and weighing a mere 23-25 grams, has an extensive breeding range spanning the northern hemisphere through Europe, Asia, Alaska, extreme northern Canada, Greenland, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands.  Of the six recognized subspecies two occur in North America: the nominate oenanthe distributed in Alaska and  northwestern Canada, and the Greenland race leucorhoa breeding in northeastern Canada and Greenland. All six subspecies winter in sub-Saharan Africa.   

North American wheatears are reported to undergo some of the longest migration distances between breeding and wintering ranges of any songbird of similar size.  Birds breeding in Alaska and northwestern Canada migrate to eastern Africa via Asia and the Middle East, a one-way distance exceeding 9,000 miles.  The leucorhoa subspecies migrates to western Europe and then to western Africa, although studies also indicate transatlantic nonstop migrations exceeding 2,000 miles also occur.

The taxonomic classification of Northern Wheatear is unsettled.  Some authorities place wheatears among Old World Flycatchers of the Family Muscicapidae; others classify them with Thrushes (Family Turdidae).

Sightings of Northern Wheatears in Vermont, or in the Lower 48 for that matter, are rare with most reports occurring in the fall of year.  Most Vermont sightings have been in the Champlain Valley.  This most recent record is a bird of the Greenland subspecies recognized by the pronounced buff color on the throat, much paler in nominate race birds.

Friday, April 11, 2014

Windsor Prison Farm

Just a 10 minute drive outside of historic Windsor, Vermont (birthplace of the Vermont Republic, 1777-1791) are 945 acres of state owned farmland that hosts the 28± acre Southeast State Correctional Facility (SESCF).  The farm was established in 1915 as an annex to the Windsor State Prison, the first state penitentiary in the United States and longest operating facility until it closed in 1975.  Prison inmates worked the farm raising a dairy herd, a piggery, chickens, as well as produced vegetables and fruits for themselves and residents of other state institutions.  When the dairy herd was sold off in 1992 the property essentially ceased being an actively managed farm. 

Apart from the SESCF the remaining acreage is a patchwork of plant communities, representative of early seral and climax successional stages that typically follow farm abandonment including the broad categories: grass-forb fields, old fields, pole stage woodlands, and mature forests.  Other habitat types present on the property are feral apple orchards, wet sedge meadow, hedgerows and woodland brushy borders, a pond, and small streams.   This diversity of habitats attracts diverse birdlife. 
In recent years, Windsor Prison Farm (WPF) has become a popular Southern Windsor County bird watching destination.  A total species count exceeding 100 so far has been documented on or in the vicinity of the property.  Birds of particular interest to birders are those associated with old field habitats, such as Blue-winged and Golden-winged warblers, Eastern Towhee, and Field Sparrow. Old field communities are becoming increasingly uncommon in New England as abandoned farmlands revert to forests or are being developed.

Click on image to enlarge.
Numbers correspond to habitat types described below.
1.  Grass-Forb Fields are a prominent WPF landscape feature.  Annual mowing and periodic brush hogging maintain these habitats.  Perennial grass-dominated fields make up much of the property; however, these are gradually being superseded by biennials forbs, such as goldenrod (Solidago sp.).  Grassland nesting birds on WPF are Bobolink and Savannah Sparrow.  Other associates are Wild Turkey, American Kestrel, Tree Swallow, Eastern Bluebird, and Red-winged Blackbird. 

2.  Old Fields exist where hay fields and pastures were abandoned from active agricultural use and natural early plant community succession has been allowed to proceed. The largest area of this habitat type is located upland of the large wet sedge meadow near the center of the WPF property (7).  This is a shrub-sapling community dominated by brambles (Rubus sp.), multifora rose (Rosa multiflora), shrub dogwood (Cornus sp.), black cherry (Prunus sp.) and white pine (Pinus strobus). Birds likely to be seen in this habitat are American Woodcock, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher,  Golden-winged Warbler (rare),  Eastern Towhee, Field Sparrow, and Indigo Bunting.  Prairie Warbler has been documented nesting in a dry old field habitat  abutting the WPF property and Marton Road.
Brown Thrasher
3.  Feral Apple "Orchards" provide habitat for Ruffed Grouse, Wild Turkey, Black-billed Cuckoo, Cedar Waxwing, and Blue-winged Warbler among other spcies.   Typically the understory vegetative layer in and around the "orchards" is dominated by pasture juniper (Juniperus communis) and brambles (Rubus sp.).  Because apple fruit are an important late fall and winter food source for white-tailed deer, grouse and turkeys, these stands are actively managed a local hunter group in partnership with the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department to improve apple tree health and fruit production through selective tree and brush removal.

Blue-winged Warbler
4.  Mature Deciduous-Mixed Forest is Northern Hardwood Forest Formation represented by sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), yellow birch (Betula allegahaniensis) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is the dominant forest type on the property.  Some of the mature forest bird species located on the WPF property include Ruffed Grouse, Wild Turkey, 
Pileated Woodpecker, Great Crested Flycatcher, Red-eyed and Blue-headed vireos, Veery,  Thrush, Ovenbird, Black-throated Blue Warbler, Black-throated Green Warbler, Blackburnian Warbler, Scarlet Tanager, and Rose-breasted Grosbeak.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak

5.  Mature Coniferous Forests are either predominantly hemlock or white pine stands.  Mature pine stands exemplify advanced old field succession.  Hemlock forests are critical winter habitat for white-tailed deer.  Common bird associates of coniferous forest include Barred Owl, Winter Wren, Hermit Thrush, and Blackburnian Warbler.

6.  Woodland Edges and Hedgerows represent the boundary between two very contrasting habitat types (e.g. forest and grassland).  Ecologically this produces the "edge effect" where the abundance of food and cover tends to favor high species diversity.  Birds associated with wooded-brushy edges on the WPF are  Mourning Dove, Black-billed Cuckoo, Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Eastern Kingbird, Red-eyed Vireo, American Robin, Gray Catbird, Brown Thrasher, Cedar Waxwing, American Redstart, Song Sparrow, Northern Cardinal, Indigo Bunting, Baltimore Oriole, and American Goldfinch.  During spring and fall migration seasons edge habitats may attract a variety of warbler and sparrow species not present at other times of the year, e.g. Palm, Blackpoll and Wilson's warblers and Fox, Lincoln's and White-crowned sparrows. 

7.  Wet Sedge Meadow that is at the core of the WPF property likely grazed by cows back when the farm maintained a dairy herd.  Today, the dominant plants are sedges (Carex sp.), sensitive fern (Onoclea sensibilis), some common cattails (Typha latifolia), scattered alder (Alnus sp.) and willow (Salix sp.).  Birds to be seen here are American Bittern, Wilson’s Snipe, Alder and Willow flycatchers, Yellow Warbler, Red-winged Blackbird, Swamp and Song sparrows.  In 19XX, a pair of Northern Harriers successfully nested and fledged young here.  During the nesting season listen and look for male snipes engaged in aerial display flights to attract mates and defend their territories.

8.  Prison Pond was constructed in 1925 by damming a tributary stream to Hubbard Brook and has a surface area of one acre.  Occasional pond drop-ins are Great Blue Heron, Wood Duck and Hooded Merganser.  More predictable during the nesting season is a pair of Louisiana Waterthrush sometimes found in the brushy pond shoreline but more often heard singing downstream from the forested ravine through which the brook flows.
9.  Pole Stage Woodlands is at the present time a relatively minor habitat type on the property.  It is a successional stage between old field shrub and mature forest communities.  Species associated with pole stage woodlands are Ruffed Grouse, American Woodcock, Warbling Vireo, Cedar Waxwing, and Chestnut-sided Warbler.
The latest revision of the Connecticut River Birding Trail  – Upper Valley Section added Marton Road, including the WPF property, is one of 49 Vermont and New Hampshire birding sites identified within a 77 mile long section of the Connecticut River Valley.

Directions to the WPF property: From the traffic light at the intersection of Main Street (US Route 5) and State Street in downtown Windsor drive  0.7 miles on State Street to the junction of it with Hunt and County roads.  Bear left onto Hunt Road and drive 1.5 miles and turn right onto Marton Road.  Drive 1.7 miles to intersection with Prison Road (closed to vehicles) on the right.   Cautionary Note: the SESCF is located due east of here and is off limits to the public.  While birding the property obey signage and do not approach the correctional facility.   

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

Western Massachusetts Pink-footed Goose

Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) sightings in the Northeast have been occurring with increasing frequency since the late 1990s.   A winter vagrant to eastern Canada and northeastern U.S., its nesting range is eastern Greenland, Iceland and Svalbard.  Normal winter range is Great Britain, the Netherlands and Denmark.  Increased vagrancy to North America has been attributed to the population having undergone a 10 fold increase over the past 50 years. 

Based on eBird postings, five Northeastern states report single bird sightings of Pink-footed Geese between last December through today: Maine, Dec. 12; Maryland, Feb. 4; New York, Mar. 19; Pennsylvania, Mar. 21; and Massachusetts, Mar. 30.

The Massachusetts bird was in the company of a large flock of Canada Geese feeding in agricultural fields along Knightly Road in Hadley (slightly grainy digiscoped image below).

Sunday, March 23, 2014

Rusty Blackbirds

Today six Rusty Blackbirds were observed and digiscoped on Old Connecticut River Road in Springfield, Vermont.  These were in a flock of 10+ Red-winged Blackbirds and four Common Grackles.

Rusty Blackbird is a North American species of high conservation concern.  Since the 1960s its population has declined 85 to 99%.  Causes of this trend are unknown at this time, but the scientific community suspects global climate change and habitat degradation/loss.  The 2014 Rusty Blackbird Spring Migration Blitz is a citizen science effort to engage birders in seeking out "rusties" and to submit their observations on-line.   Check out the link for details.

Male Rusty Blackbird in late basic/early alternate plumage.

Male Rusty Blackbird (left) and Red-winged Blackbird (right).

Saturday, March 22, 2014

Bear Alert!

Vermont Fish & Wildlife
Department photo.
One sure sign of spring in northern New England is the first appearance of bear sign whether it be scat, paw prints in snow or mud, or experiencing destruction of backyard bird feeders.  Bear have begun coming out of hibernation and are searching for high caloric food following a long winter fast.  Bird feeders stocked with sunflower seed and suet are irresistible to a hungry bear; and once such a food source has been located, it can be difficult to discourage regular bear visits and the expensive loss of bird feeders.  The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department recommends bird feeding be stopped by April 1st at the latest and that feeding not be resumed until early December after bears have denned.    

Sunday, March 16, 2014

Turners Falls Waterfowl

After seeing recent reports of a Canvasback and a Redhead on the Connecticut River and Barton's Cove in Turners Falls, Massachusetts, I drove down to check out the action being last week's late season major snow storm and subsequent cold temperatures greatly limit birding prospects in the vicinity of home.

The river immediately upstream of Turners Falls Dam was found to be largely ice free with good numbers of waterfowl including the following species: Canada Goose, Mute Swan, Mallard, Canvasback, Redhead, Ring-necked Duck, Greater Scaup, Long-tailed Duck, Bufflehead, Common Goldeneye, Common Merganser, and Red-breasted Merganser.  While there I was told by another birder that three Canvasbacks were present earlier in the day, but only two remained by the time of my arrival.  The Canvasbacks and the Redhead (all males) were napping the entire time and not cooperating to be digiscoped.  Even though their heads were snuggled into their backs, identification was straight forward.  Note in the photo below the light gray back and sides of the Readhead contrasting with the very white back and sides of the Canvasback.
Redhead, left; Canvasback, right.
Left to right in foreground, Canvasback and Redhead. 
Ring-necked Ducks to rear and right.